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《制度经济学研究》第十六辑文章标题与摘要
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1.题目:公共支出的决定机制、分散均衡的扭曲与经济增长

编辑:金 戈

本文在Barro(1990)的经典框架里,考察了公共支出外生和内生两种决定机制下,分散均衡路径所包含的不同扭曲以及相应的纠正扭曲的方案。与Barro的结论不同,大家发现在公共支出绝对规模外生决定机制下,收入税将导致扭曲,通过将收入税转变为总额税可以纠正扭曲。在公共支出内生决定机制下,私人企业的生产决策而非收入税导致了扭曲,政府可以通过对私人企业进行补贴来纠正扭曲,一般而言,实行总额税并不能纠正扭曲。

关键词公共支出;决定机制;扭曲

中图分类号:F810 文献标识码:A

2.题目:制度网络:概念界定及形式建构

编辑:纪玉山 代栓平

摘 要】制度网络是指相关制度由于长期存在相互联系和相互作用而形成的稳定的联接结构形态。制度网络的正外部性可以节约大量交易费用,同时可以降低制度建立和维护的成本,实现“认知范围的外部经济性”。在一定的技术和市场下,多样的兼容性制度实现相互联结,形成纵向历时性关联、横向共时关联和纵横交错三种不同的制度网络形式。在制度网络框架下,可以对路径依赖的形成做出新的说明,它是因处于制度网络中的各项独立制度的互相牵制而导致的。而且路径依赖的突破过程正是对制度网络打破和超越的过程。在现实社会经济活动中,只有充分注意到制度网络结构的存在,才能使单一制度的作用实现最大化。

【关键词】制度网络 交易费用 路径依赖

中图分类号:F069.9 文献标识码:A

3.题目:农地规模与经济效率:地权和交易成本约束下的农业生产及农民的选择

编辑:蔡银寅

成本约束是生产要素组合选择的核心,农业的规模化生产受规模经济的影响而对生产要素组合的选择产生激励作用。地权的约束缩小了农业生产要素的可选择集,但农业生产仍被选择为那些更容易达到规模经济的要素组合,这是权衡生产和管理成本的结果。本文从规模经济理论出发,建立一个农业生产规模的控制模型,分析了农地规模与经济效率,以及地权约束下的农业生产模式和农民的就业选择,并利用已有的文献进行了实证研究。

关键词规模经济;要素组合;兼业

中图分类号:F301 文献标示码:A

4.题目:企业家的创新活动:本质及含义

编辑:吉 云

摘要由于企业家的创新活动在本质上与不确定性决策相关,它涉及到“直觉”、“意识”、“预测”等“非理性”判断,主流的新古典框架并没有把它纳入分析视野,但经济现实中的大多数真正重要的经济活动都与它有关。本文研究了企业家活动的本质和与此相关的创新利润问题,主要结论是企业家活动总是与市场的不完全性联系在一起,它是经济演化的内在动力,而创新利润既是企业家活动的结果,又是企业家活动的根本动力。个人追逐利润动机带来的企业家活动在整体上增进了社会福利。

关键词不完全市场;不确定性;企业家活动;创新利润

中图分类号:F270 文献标示码:A

5.题目:企业价值构成的理论建构和解析

编辑:许光伟

【摘 要】价值构成是关于价值生产与价值分配相统一的一套完整的认识方法和制度结构。沿着价值中心范畴进行演绎,在商品价值构成的基础上可以逻辑地导出企业价值构成范畴,这被归结为“价值构成的广义特性问题”。企业价值构成的深层逻辑结构是生成广义劳动价值论与狭义劳动价值论的科学统一,并借此确立了劳动价值论提供企业分析基础的优良数理品质。企业价值构成进一步研究的意义在于:奠定现代经济理论价值分析的微观基础。当前马克思政治经济学的与时俱进和现代化在一定程度上依赖和取决于马克思企业理论的这一现代范式研究能否顺利进行。

【关键词】价值 劳动 企业价值构成 马克思企业理论

中图分类号:F014 文献标示码:A

6.题目:贸易顺差、挤入效应与消费率提高

编辑:司增绰

【摘 要】贸易顺差是中国国民储蓄向国外溢出,是中国把净出口获得的外汇储蓄借给国外消费。“挤入效应”是近些年来中国对美国经常项目贸易顺差逐步扩大的经济现象,是一种说明“资本从穷国流向富国”的经济理论,是美国一些经济学家诠释中美贸易关系(顺差-逆差)形成原因的分析框架,“挤入效应”的背后是中国牺牲了国内的消费。中国传统的出口贸易增长方式一方面造成中美贸易摩擦、政治摩擦,另一方面则“挤出”了中国国内的消费需求,只有消费率提高了,中国经济增长的内生力才能形成。提高消费率是中国享用自己的巨大财富的要求,是中国转换经济发展模式的要求,也是促进贸易平衡的要求。

【关键词】贸易顺差,挤入效应,消费率

中图分类号:F113.1 文献标识码:A

7.题目:长期购买力平价: 来自东亚的证据

编辑:李志宏

【摘 要】单一时间序列单位根检验表明东亚与东南亚诸国中几乎任一国的货币与美金之间的真实汇率在1970-2003这一时期内都不是稳定的,而单一时间序列协整关系检验表明这些国家中几乎任一国的货币与美金之间的名义汇率与相应的相对价格水平之间在所考察的时期内均不存在协整关联性。另一方面,面板数据单位根检验实证分析结果表明东亚诸国甚至于东亚与东南亚诸国作为一个整体其货币与美金之间的真实汇率在所考察的时期内并非是稳定的,而考虑到相关宏观经济变量之间的样本关联性的面板数据协整关系检验实证分析结果则表明东亚诸国甚至于东亚与东南亚诸国作为一个整体其货币与美金之间的名义汇率与相应的相对价格水平之间在所考察的时期内并不存在稳定的协整关联性。由此推知,时间序列变量的相对跨度并非检验购买力平价的一个决定性因素,而长期购买力平价本质上可以被视为内生经济收敛的一种结果。实证分析还表明,时间趋势并非相关名义宏观经济变量之间的长期内在关系中的一个关键因素。由此观知,若时间趋势构成了某一特定宏观经济变量的长期走势的一个显著因素,则此变量必定包涵有某种真实的成份。

关键词面板数据; 单位根检验;协整检验; 购买力平价; 内生收敛

中图分类号:F831 文献标示码:A

8.题目:制度、制度供给与政府治理

编辑:任百祥

本文构造了一个内生的、全要素的、动态的制度供给与政府治理模型。主要观点是:政府契约是内生于经济运行过程的生产性团队,政治规则规定了该团队经营及销售活动的基本准则即宪政规则,制度是政府契约所供给的产品;交易结构、频度、特性等决定了制度的供给数量、质量及价格等变量,形成动态的政府契约结构及治理特征;政治家是政府契约的所有者,党派及多党派竞争的政府契约安排成为现代政府治理的核心;政治家通过支付生产、暴力、监督、替代等成本,达到制度供给和政府契约定价的目的,形成政府治理的作用过程和实施范围。

关键词交易成本 契约 制度 政府

中图分类号:F062.4 文献标示码:A

9.题目:学问与发展:大分流的形成

编辑:陈昆亭 周 炎

近期关于工业革命与大分流的文献主要强调几个方面:地理条件,人力资本,制度和国际贸易。但大家认为这些都不是最根本的原因,大家认为社会学问背景的差异是形成分流的最根本的原因。本文建立两部门模型模拟1750-1850期间英国和中国的经济特征并分析比较这些因素,可以证明大家的猜测。

关键词工业革命, 大分流, 社会学问环境.

中图分类号:F119 文献表示码:A

10.题目:不完全契约理论及其在金融领域的应用

编辑:谢杰斌

本文在考察不完全契约理论内核以及其基本分析范式的基础上,对应用不完全契约理论于金融领域的相关文献进行了综述,重点总结了利用不完全契约视角分析金融契约、金融中介以及整体金融体系的相关理论成果,在此基础上相应地提出对于不完全契约理论发展的几点评价。

关键词不完全契约、分析范式、金融制度设计

中图分类号:F83.30 文献标识码:A

11.题目:公共信息的社会价值

编辑:斯蒂芬?莫里斯 申铉松

译者:李增刚 李倩

具有高度公众知名度的市场主体通过媒体和曝光的方式发布公共信息,会对福利造成什么样的影响?大家在这样一种背景下验证了公共信息的影响,即参与人采取的行动完全符合基本理论,但他们也有从其行动的策略补充中产生的合作动机。当参与人没有具有社会价值的私人信息时,提供更多的公共信息通常会提高社会福利。然而,当参与人也能够获得独立的信息来源时,不断增加的公共曝光对福利造成的影响具有不确定性。

关键词公共信息 社会价值

中图分类号:F069 文献标示码:A

1.Title: Determination Mechanisms of Public Expenditure, Distortions of Decentralized Equilibrium, and Economic Growth

Author(s): Ge Jin

Abstract:This paper studies the two kinds of distortions of the decentralized equilibrium under the two kinds of determination mechanisms of public expenditure, which are respectively endogenous and exogenous, and gives different policy suggestions to eliminate the distortions in Barro’s (1990) framework. Different from Barro’s conclusion, we find that the distortion results from income tax under the exogenous determination mechanism and it can be eliminated by a lump-sum tax instead of income tax; while the distortion results from the private decision but not income tax under the endogenous determination mechanism and it can be eliminated by a subsidy to private sector and it can not be eliminated by a lump-sum tax in general.

Key Words:Public Expenditure; Determination Mechanism; Distortion

JEL Classifications:E620, H500, O410

2.Title:Institutional Network: Notion Defined and Modality Constructed

Author(s): Yushan Ji Shuanping Dai

[Abstract]Institutional Network describes a stable connected structure that formed by the relative institution over a long period of time in the procedure of interrelation and interaction. The external of institutional network can reduce the transaction cost largely, and the connection of institutional network provides the mechanism to reduce the cost of setup and maintain the institution, and further speaking, the external economy of cognitive scope will come true in the institutional network. At the certain condition of technology and market, institutional network formed by the connection of the multiplicity of institution one another, and it contains three modes: longitudinal diachronic institutional network, landscape orientation contemporaneous institutional network, and vertically and horizontally institutional network. Path-dependence is due to the diversion of various independent institutions. To back through path-dependence is equal to beyond the institutional network. This theory is important for socialistic construction in our country, in order to maximize the policy effects,we must sufficiently notice the being of institutional network.

[Key words]institutional Network Transaction Cost Path-dependence

JEL Classification: B520 D230 D020

3. Title: Farm-Land Scale and Agricultural Production Efficiency: Peasant’s Select and Agricultural Bound by Land-Ownership and Transaction Cost

Author(s): Yinyin Cai

Abstract: The core of selections on the structure of production elements is cost restraint, and the influence from economies of scale incentive these selections. Land-Ownership restraint reduces the scope of agricultural production elements, yet, it is that can get the economies of scale easily, which is the result of the equilibrium between production cost and management expenses. The parper established a dominate model on the structure of agricultural production in view of the theory of economies of scale, analysed the Farm-Land scale and agricultural production efficiency, pesant’s job select and agricultural production, and made a experience research with lierature.

Key Words: economies of scale; the combination of elements; combined occupations

JEL Classification: Q190, R110

4.Title: Entrepreneurial Innovation Activity: Essences and Implications

Author(s): Yun Ji

Abstract:The mainstream neo-classical framework hasn’t embodied entrepreneurial innovation activity because such activity is in essence related with decision making under uncertainty, which is relevant to the “non-rational” judgments such as “intuition”, “consciousness” and “prediction”. However, the most of really important economic issues in actual economy are concerned with such entrepreneurial activity. This paper studies its essence and related issues about innovation profit. We argue that the entrepreneurial activity is always related to the incompleteness of market and results in economic evolution, the innovation profit is the intrinsic driving force of entrepreneurial activity as well as its consequence. The entrepreneurial activity resulted from individual motive toward profit improves social welfare in the macro level.

Keywords:Incomplete Market, Uncertainty, Entrepreneurial Activity, Innovation Profit

JEL Classification:D210, D800, L10

5.Title: The Theoretical Construction and Anatomy to Enterprise's Value-composition

Author(s):Guang-wei Xu

[Abstract] The study focuses in the question that enterprise's value-composition provides a suit ofways and means in cognition and institutional structure for the unification between value production and value distribution.The Theoretical proposition can be summed up by the broad specificity question of value-compositionthat the category of enterprise's value-composition should be from thecommodity's value-composition based on the logical deduction to the valuecategory as a central clue. The deep-seatedlogic structureof enterprise's value-composition lies in illustrating the scientific unification ofMarxistlabor theory of value between broad sense and narrow sense, which establishes the excellentmathematical character to deduct the theoreticallogic from labor theory of valueto enterprise theory. The farther study on the enterprise's value-composition willattach importance to the microeconomics basic for the modern analysis of economic theory. At the present time, the keeping pace with the times and modernizationofMarxist political economy depends on the well development of modern paradigm research of Marxist enterprise theoryto a certain extent.

[Key words]Value Labor Enterprise's value-composition Marxist enterprise theory

JEL Classification: B510 D460 M200

6.Title: Trade Surplus, Crowding In and Consumption Rate Raising

Author(s): Zengchuo Si

Abstract:Trade surplus is the spillover of Chinese national saving, it means China lent its foreign currency saving to foreigner. Crowding-in is the economic phenomenon of Chinese trade surplus expansion, is the economic theory of explaining “capital flowing to rich country from poor country”, is the analysis framework of some American economists explaining trade relation between China and America, it means Chinese sacrifice their consumption. Chinese old models of export increasing made trade conflict and political conflict between China and America, and it crowd out Chinese consumption. Consumption rate raising will help Chinese economic growth. Consumption rate raising is the demand of Chinese enjoying their large wealth, the demand of china transferring its models of economic development, the demand of trade balance.

Key words:trade surplus, crowding in, consumption rate

JEL Classification:F010

7.Tiltle: Long Run Purchasing Power Parity: Evidence from East Asia

Author: Zhihong Li

Abstract:Single time series unit root tests reveal that almost none of the real exchange rates between the currencies of East and Southeast Asian countries and the U.S. dollar is stationary during the 1970-2003 period, while single time series cointegration tests report that there is no long run cointegrating relationship between almost any of the nominal exchange rates between the currencies of East and Southeast Asian countries and the U.S. dollar and any of the relevant relative price levels during the period considered. On the other hand, panel unit root tests reveal that as to East Asian countries as a group and even East and Southeast Asian countries as a group are concerned, the real exchange rate between their currencies and the U.S. dollar is not stationary during the period under consideration, while panel cointegration tests accounting for the underlying sample variable correlation report consistent results, i.e, as to East Asian countries as a group and even East and Southeast Asian countries as a group are concerned, the nominal exchange rate between their currencies and the U.S. dollar is not cointegrated with the relevant relative price level in the long run. Accordingly, the span of time series data does not seem to be the crucial factor in testing purchasing power parity theory, and long run purchasing power parity can be fundamentally viewed as a result of endogenous economic convergence. Furthermore, empirical analyses reveal that time trend is not a key factor in the long run relationship between relevant nominal economic variables. Hence, if time trend constitutes a significant component in the long run movement of a specific economic variable, the variable must embody something real.

Keywords: Panel Data; Unit Root Test; Cointegration Test; Purchasing Power Parity; Endogenous Convergence

JEL Classifications:F310; C150; C230

8.Title:Institutions, Institutional Supplying and Government Governance

Author(s): Baixiang Ren

Abstract: This paper outlines an inherent, comprehensive and dynamic model of institutions supply and government governance. The main viewpoint is that government contract is a productive team which is produced in the process of economic development. Political rules stipulate common principles. Constitutionalism principles of the team running and selling. Institutions is a product that the government contract provides. the structure, frequency and character of the transaction decides the quantity, Quality and price of the institutions supply ,Which forms a dynamic contract structure and governance character. Statesmen are the owner of the government contract and the core of the modern government governance are the party and multiparty competition. Statesmen achieve the goal of the institutions supply and government contract by baying the cost of the production, violence, supervision and substitution and form the process and the range of government governance.

Key Words: Transaction costs; Contract; Institutions; government

JEL Classification: H110

9.Title: Social Ambience and Development: the Basic Reason for the Great Divergence

Author(s): Kunting Chen Yan Zhou

Abstract:Recently published research on the Great Divergence mainly focuses on geography, human capital, and international trade. However, we do not believe these are the most basic reasons, instead, we recommend that the ‘cultural/social ambience’ of a country or a region is the most fundamental reason. This paper describes a model to analyze and compare these factors. This model is able to prove our guess/inference that the most basic reason for the Great Divergence lies in this cultural ambience. This paper mainly based on a two-sector benchmark model to simulate economic characteristics of England and Yangzi Delta of China during 1750-1850, explores aspects of this period transition.

Keywords:the Industrial Revolution, the Great Divergence, difference of culture and systems.JEL Classifications:O10 O40

10.Title: The Theory of Incomplete Contract and its Application in Finance

Author(s): Jiebin Xie

AbstractAfter analyzing the core and the basic analysis paradigm of the theory of Incomplete Contract, this paper reviews the literature on the appliance of the Incomplete Contract theory in financial field, especially in the fields of financial contract , financial intermediaries and the whole financial system. Based on the preceding analysis, the paper put forward some suggestions on the development of the Incomplete Contract theory.

Keywords:Incomplete Contract; Analysis Paradigm; the Design of Financial institution

JEL Classifications:B520 D820 G200

11.Title: Social Value of Public Information

Author(s): Stephen Morris and Hyun Song Shin

Translator(s): Zenggang Li and Qian Li

Abstract:What are the Welfare effects of enhanced dissemination of public information through the media and disclosures by market participants with high public visibility? We examine the impact of public information in a setting where agents take actions appropriate to the underlying fundamentals, but they also have a coordination motive arising from a strategic complementarity in their actions. When the agents have no socially valuable private information, greater provision of public information always increases welfare. However, when agents also have access to independent sources of information, the welfare affect of increased public disclosures is ambiguous.

Key Words: Social Value Public Information

JEL Classifications:D820

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