【关键词】分工 分配 收入差距 劳资关系 政治经济学
【关键词】城市房屋拆迁 法律与经济分析 对策与建议
1．Title: Division of Labour, Distribution and labour-capital bargaining
Author(s):Yong Yue Huiqin Yao
Abstract：Summarizing the distribution theory from Marx’s labor-capital bargaining model, distribution theory of Marginal productivity, Second theorem of welfare economics and New Institutional Economics, the thesis will try to explain China earnings inequality in different crowds by Marx’s labour-capital bargaining model.
Based on empirical research, the contributions are as follow: (1) The relative scarcity of factor failing to explain the income inequality of China completely, (2) income level between different groups being correlated with capital scale per labor, and (3) with government’s investment scale (its investment proportion in the whole investment, correlating with earnings level of different provinces and different industries) as well.
To draw the conclusion, the main reason why the income inequality of China is: the governments at all levels are eager for enhancing GDP and related tax, leading to concentrating on prompting capital accumulation and controlling labor price. Therefore, the income inequality of China is a issue of political economy and the change relies on the institution reform and promotion of market economy, which is homology with the new classic economics.
Key Words:Division of Labour；Distribution； Income inequality； Labour-capital bargaining ；Political economics.
JEL Classifications： B140 D310 E640
2. Title: The Interplay of Power, Rights and Interests
Abstract:In recent years, the problem that China’schaiqian(“Demolition and Relocation”) has emerged as a field prone to disputes. Such disputes frequently involve various governmental bodies, private developers, the courts, construction companies, and the general public. Conflicts between the private rights and the public interest, between the individual interests, commercial interests and the political power, are becoming increasingly fierce and have raised concerns about social stability. Those well-connected construction developers try to gain the huge illegal profits. Some forced eviction cases violate basic human rights, but the legal redress for evicted persons still lack. With an examination of the current law framework in China and what policy changes have been to attempt to deal with the issues associated with Demolishment and Relocation, the author use the method of law and economics and two game theory models to directly illustrate situation encountered in practice and theProperty law，Law of the People's Republic of China on Administration of the Urban Real Estate，City Planning Law of the Peoples Republic of China，especiallyRegulation on the Administration of Urban House Demolishment and Relocation(by State Department, 2001) and other national laws and regulations. Finally, the author describing the present difficulties in legal relief forChaiqiandisputes, and presents some possiblesolutions and recommendations.
Key word:Urban House Demolition and Relocation (chaiqian), Economic and Legal Analysis, Solutions and Recommendations
3. Title: Fiscal Decentralization, Institutional Innovation and Economic Growth
Author(s):Ruiming Liu Yongxiu Bai
Abstract:Fisical decentralization and instituional innovation are two key figures in china’s economic growth. This paper investigates the economic growth from the perspective of fisical decentralization, we think that the fiscal decentralization induced to government pushed institutional innovation. Institutional innovation division of labour between central government and local government according to their comparative advantages is the engine of the economic growth in the past decades.
Key Words:Fisical decentralization; Instituional innovation; Economic growth
JEL Classification：F620 P200 O100
4.Title: On Advantages for Growth of Radical Institutional Transformation
ABSTRACT：Both agricultural reforms of China and Russia started on the rural land systems. China took the gradual transformation path, which introduced the land property rights for the peasants on the incumbent collective ownership. The initial effects were obvious; however, the later perspective was to be obscure. In contrast, Russia took the radical transformation path, which privatized the agrarian land to the tillers, reshaping the state farms and collective farms into family run farms. The stirs led the Russian agriculture to fall sharply, and after a period of time, the situation turned up and the trend was from good to even better. Both reforms and their different performances show that there are advantages for growth of radical institutional transformation.
KEY WORDS：radical reforms agrarian land privatization
growth advantages of radical institutional transformation
JEL Classifications：O170 O570
5. Title: On Cost-Benefit and Transaction Cost of Decentralization between the Central Government and Local Governments
Abstract：Rational choice is the hardcore paradigm of Law and Economics. It means that the benefit (utility) equals to the remaining sum that income subtracted from cost. In decentralization issue, the institutional design and arrangement should pursue both the maximization and minimization inevitably, in order to realize the maximization of benefit in decentralization. The legal institution regulating decentralization should urge the minimization of transaction cost in decentralization and cost of public goods simultaneity, in order to promote the efficiency and optimization of decentralization. Two factors must be considered: the transaction cost of institution in decentralization and the cost and income of observation or transgressing the law. At present, the cost of negotiation, execution and supervision in decentralization institution are exorbitant. As a solution, the rent-seeking opportunities of local governments should be eliminated, and the supervision of National and local People's Congress should be enhanced, the organizations and supers in central government and local governments should be reduced, the supervising efficiency of central government and local People's Congresses to the local governments should be promoted.
Keywords：decentralization； cost-benefit analysis； transaction cost； law and economics
JEL Classifications：K190 G000 H100
6．Title: On the Human’s Consciousness Driving Social Order to Extend Continuously
Abstract:Hayek’s view of endogenous order, which means free competition under a general abstract rule will lead social order to extend continuously, can be reduced to “one center and two fundaments”, thereinto, the centre task is extensive order and the market and law is its guarantee. However, the forming and carrying through of any abstract rule must include the action of human’s consciousness, and there are two kind forces to promote social order to extend: spontaneous force and self-conscious force, whose common foundation is ethics. What’s more, by a full Examination of Hayek’s thought, this paper found that Hayek was not steadfast believer in endogenous order and he is Lamarckist rather than Darwinist. Nevertheless, because of his ideology and ultra- reaction to rationalistic practice, Hayek focus to excavate the tradition of latitudinarianism and evolutionism rooted in western society.
Keywords:Endogenous order, Extensive order, Ethics, Hayek
JEL Classifications：A130 K000 Z130
7. Title: Incomplete Information and Contract Enforcement
Abstract:The nature of the market is trade. When information is incomplete, many profitable deals can not be made. For market to function there must be some mechanisms of contract enforcement to transmit information. This review finds that a well-functioning legal system can be used to mitigate information asymmetries. When legal mechanism of contract enforcement is absent or inadequate, informal mechanisms of contract enforcement can substitute for or complement to courts in allowing deal to be made. While informal mechanisms of contract enforcement fosters economic efficiency by making gains from trade realizable, it sometimes also harms efficiency by excluding new entrants from trading or by achieving price collusion. So it is important to take measures to develop a well-functioning legal system.
Key Words:Incomplete information; Market mechanism; Mechanisms of contract enforcement
8. Title: Theory of Institutional Change Based on Human Nature Framework and Validity of Institutions
Abstracts:We can classify the theories of institutional changes into the two kinds: the theories of institutional changes base on the framework of demand and supply and search the foundations of psychology and cognition. On the basis of the previous research works, I bring forward the conception about the validity of institutions, and use the method of the human nature framework to analyze the changes of the institutions, and try to reconstruct the theory of institutional changes.
Key words: institutional change validity of institution human nature framework
JEL: Classifications: B520
9．Title : The Economics of Autocracy and Majority Rule: The Invisible Hand and the Use of Force
Author(s) :Martin C. McGuire Mancur Olson, Jr.
Abstract:The Essay will demonstrate that they do―that whenever a rational self-interested actor with enquestioned coercive power has an encompassing and stable interest in the domain over which the power is exercised, that actor is led to act in ways that are, to s surprising degree, consistent with the interests of society and of those subject to that power. It is as if the ruling power were guided by a hidden hand no less paradoxical for us than the invisible hand in the market was for people in Adam Smith’s time. In fact, when an optimizing entity with coercive power has a sufficiently encompassing interest―what we define as a super-encompassing interest―the invisible hand will lead it remarkably, to treat those subject to its power as well as it treats itself.
Key Words:Autocracy Majority Rule Encompassing Interest Power
JEL Classifications: H010 P160 P480